Managers beware . Processes that are espoused may not be the processes in use.
Several academics have mentioned this phenomenon. Simply put, what is actually practised may be different from what is believed to be getting practised. Most common cause of this is processes evolve since their initial rollout but the evolution is rarely documented. Structural changes such as reorgs , attrition , new hiring also contribute to the widening of the gap. Nothing beats experience - going through the process hands on is the best in order to understand what really is going on . Next best is first hand observation of the process in use.